Excerpt from The Political Development of Japan: 1867-1909
1853. Arrival of Commodore Perry (July8).
A meeting of the Council of Kuges (Court nobles) held in the Court of Kyoto.
Rise of the two political factions, Joito and Kaikokido (BarbarianExpelling Party and Party for Opening Country).
Death of the Shogun Iyeyoshi and succession of Iyesada (Aug.).
1854. Return of Commodore Perry (Feb.13).
The first treaty with the United States (March31).
Arrival of Sir John Sterling; a treaty with Great Britain (Oct.15).
Imprisonment of Yoshida and Shibuki for attempting to go abroad, and of Sakuma, their teacher.
1855. A treaty with Russia (Feb.7).
1856.A treaty with Holland (Jan.30).
Arrival of Townsend Harris (Aug.)
1857. The Shoguns audience given to Harris (Dec.7).
1858. A meeting of the daimios at Yedo (Feb.).
Refusal of the Imperial Court to assent to a treaty of amity and commerce, which was about to be concluded with America.
Ii Kamon-no-Kami appointed as Minister of State (Tairo).
Conclusion of the Harris Treaty (July29).
A similar treaty with Great Britain, France, and Russia.
Strong anti-foreign and anti-Shogunate agitation under the leadership of the daimio of Mito.
Death of the Shogun Iyesada and succession of Iyemochi.
1859. Conflict between the Minister of State, Ii, and the anti-foreign and anti-Shogunate parties.
1860. The assassination of Ii, Minister of State (March).
Conclusion of a Treaty with Holland and with Prussia.
1861. Outrage by the anti-foreign fanatics upon Mr. Heusken, a secretary of the American legation (Jan.).
Attack on the British legation (July).
1862. The first Japanese envoy left for Russia (Jan.).
A second attack upon the British legation (June26).
The Richardson-party incident (Sept.).
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